World Applied Sciences Journal 4 (3): 460-469, 2008ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2008Corresponding Author: Assist.Prof.Dr.Hasan Basri Gndz, Faculty of Education, Sakarya University, Sakarya/Turkey460An Evaluation on Belbins Team Roles Theory(The Case of Sakarya Anatol2an Profess2on H2gh School, Professon H2gh School and Vocat2onal H2gh School for Industry)Hasan Basri GndzFaculty of Education, Sakarya University, Sakarya/TurkeyAbstr This study took place in Sakarya Anatolian High School, Profession High School and Vocational School for Industry (SAPHPHVHfI) where a flexible and nonroutine organising style was tried to bed.
The management style was initiated on a study group at first, but then it helped the group to come outas natural team spontaneously.
The main purpose of the study is to make an evaluation on five teams withinthe school where team (based) management has been experienced in accordance with Belbin (1981)s team rolestheory .
The study group of the research consists of 28 people.The data was obtained from observations, and the answers given to the questions in Belbin Team Roles Self Perception Inventory (BTRSPI).of the findings of the study are; (1) There was no paralellism between the team and functional roles of members of the mentioned five team, (2) The team roles were distributed equaly balanced but it was also that most of the roles were played by the members who were less inclined to play it, (3) The there were few members who played plant role within the teams and there were nearly no one who were inclined toplay leader role.
Key words:Organizational behaviour % Teams % Groups % Team (based) managemen % Team roles % Belbinsteam role theoryINTRODUCTION transformation from traditional individualistic structure of management wanted hierarchy .
A tendency towards more flexible be under total control.It extolled planning, have prevailed so far.Wright and Snellcontrol, problem solving, decision making and orientating.(19 defined flexibility as ability to rearrange the also inclined to create a culture where the workers activities and resources so quickly as t the problems to management whereas the the enviromental demands .The implementersagement solved them and gave directives on what theand the academicians have begun to see the flexibility as should do.However, today we witness thea strategic requirement .
Team (based) management isperative paradigm shift from mastership to empoweredbeing considered as one of the most important or team leadership .Team (based) among the flexible organizing models.A approaches are gradually becoming from traditional hierarchial (piramidal) Team (based) management can be named asstructure towards more delicate laminar and more flatteredse industrial revolution for its unbelivable effects onstructure is being realized .tod business organizations .Fortune magazineIt is expected that the team work should bring certainnam them as the great discovery in productivity for to the organization in accordance with the90s.
general expectations.The very first benefit would be theTeam (based) management systems are considered topr solving and realization of making decisions the milestones for increasing organizational the participation of all the team members and productivity .Almost all the Secondly, the team members would feel embraced the concepts of continuousthe strong commitment and never let it be spoiled .Lastdev and quality to ensure competition not the least, it is considered that the team (based) during 1980s and 1990s.
In order to realize enables the organization to improve morale, principles, many organizations have towards the team working strategies in their structureWorld Appl.Sci.J., 4 (3): 460-469, 2008461 and develop organizational performance tmanagement.Many researchers in above mentioned fieldsthe highest level possible .emp that the role is an important component oIn order to establish the optimum performance withinsocial structure  and that it plays important part i organization, the existance of good team consisting human behaviours in organizations .members is of vital importance [9-13].
One have been two main types of role form describedof the most known models on this issue is Belbin (1981)sand used for last fifty years which are behavioural roles model which is also the subject of this studyperspective and expectancy perspective [28,29]..According to the behavioural perspective, which i Te Concept: According to the most commonlythe role is a typically exhibited behaviour of an individualac definition in the field of organizational the team is a small group of people who make to the common goal, who perform i with the goals, who depend on each other the mutual feeling of responsibility and who havecomplementary skills .However, the concepts of teamand group are often confused and mostly used instead of another.One opinion in the literature suggests that team is not different from the group and that the on them goes well long common past .But, do not have the same qualities [14,16,17].As mostlyaccepted definition, group is two or more number amountof people who perceive themselves as a group and share common goals, who have stable relation in betweenand are within interaction .Up to date books on organizational behaviour exhibitthe distinctive attributes that defines the team on group.are; shared goals and objectives, mutual and loyalty, expressing the feelings explicitly,making decisions with compromise , cooperation, and compliance , having a commonsynergic effect .Ass above given definitions it can be inferredthat they have a lot in common.
However, Katzenbach andSmith (1999) describes three fundamental characteristics a team which are devotion, accountability(responsibility) and the skills.
Teams within organizations can be classified in manydif ways.According to the formation style, formal informal teams [21,22]; according to the functions claim responsibility for, advisory and implementary ; and according to the relations within the
and horizantal teams .Apartfrom these they can also be classified as problem solving,self-managing and cross functional teams [12,22, 24].The Role Concept: Role is a sociology-origin concept.It first used to apprehend the behaviours of individuals a social enviroment .However, today the role is being used effectively by researchers in many like psychology, social psychology, sociology, behaviour and human resources named as antropologic-sociologic perspective , occupies a definite position in a community  or,to be more spesific, in a determined context .Ps perspective or expectancy perspective defines role as expected behaviours of an individualwho occupies a definite position in a community.In otherwords, the role is the set expectations, standards and for a statue or behaviours of the individual .expected behaviour and cognition related to a position is very important for the success of therole .Thus it can be claimed that role behaviours of a is the outcome of the interaction between thaindividual and the organization .
Be (1981)s role definitions that are composing fundamentals of his studies and play important role the aspects of this study .He defines two role which are namely functional and team roles.
role, is required functions for the survival andliving of a social system .Team role, is set of roles that defined within a definite context.In other words, it issum of the roles that are required to play for the pursuit tobe done.Team Roles: When the organizational literature related totea roles is reviewed, Benne and Sheats (1948)s study classified 27 team members roles has been as the pioneer in this field .
The research based on the assumption that the membership roles required for group development and production.
27 team roles were cathegorized under three maingroups which were team role, mission and individual roles.of the important studies that has made to the field belongs to Bales and hisues [35,36].At the beginning of their research, theytried to cathegorize different behaviours exhibited b in small groups.
Behaviours were alsoclassified in regard to their being positive or negative andtheir being active and passive.Another study about team roles belongs to Ancona his colleagues [37,38].This study differs from the on the assumption that within a team, team claim only the interrelated roles.TheyWorld Appl.Sci.J., 4 (3): 460-469, 2008462 the team role perspective considering role but still have different an done team affairs (boundaries) of the roles discussed.role(s).
One of the widely known studies about team roles began her study with the simple idea obelongs to Parker (1994; 1996) [13,39].He described fourdifferent people interact differently.As a beginning, sheteam players styles which represented the choices the the teams comprising almost similar members.
made fort he interaction within the team she observed the teams in the work Parker classified the styles as; contributor, and analyzed different types extensively.Forcollaborator, communicator and challenger.instanc she labelled one type as plant because he was, of the most useful recent classification is Barryjust like a real home plant, sitting stil in his corner without(1991)s delegated leadership behaviour approach withinany interaction.But, when he interacted he could producethe team .Barry (1991) emphasized the self managingan original idea and came up with brand new plans 
.paradox by asking the question of who manages a result, she defined eight roles she felt necessary for leaderless teams? .
He described four types o success of the team based on his observations during required for self managing teams throughthe experiments .
qualitative researches he applied in 15 teams operating inBelbi psychometric tests were used to associate field.Those leadership styles are; envisioning attributes that had been measured formerly (innovative and vision fostering), organising behaviour.Afterwards, they were used to form (giving orders on missions), spanning balanced team and to predicate the possible futureip (facilitating the activities that connects team tosucc of the team once the determination of team roles organization) and social leadership (developing and learned through test results.The four basic the psychology and sociability of the team).distinctive factors put forward by the tests are: The last classification to be mentioned in theliterature is Belbin (1981; 1993)s team roles theory which1.
constitutes the theorical fundamentals of this study[9,10].Belbin determined eight team roles at first, bu then3.came up with the ninth.This theory is discussed iDetermination/Anxiety detail below.
Be Team Roles Theory: Belbin made some the needs for different team roles prevailing a that consisted the fundamentals of her stages of the development process of the team.
The results of her experiments, which constituted mentioned six stages are as follows; 1.determininga model of management teams, based on the roles requiredthe needs 2.coming up with ideas, 3.formulating the the success of the team.Belbin described team roles asplans, 4.realization of the ideas, 5.forming the team and servant members, who facilitated the progress of thezation of the job.At the first stages the Shaper andteam as a whole with his performance, structure o will be needed mostly whereas the attributes considering the interaction with and Implementers will maket h.She believes that team members have two types ofgreatest conns in the later stages .ro The first one, as described in role theory, typical labelled the team roles as; Chairman, Shaper,nal role.The second type is the team role(s).
TeamPlant, Resource Investigator, Monitor Evaluator, Team describes how suitable the member is for the he functions .the beginning.Then, he renamed the Chairman a this model the role is described with six factors, and the Company Worker a personality, mental abilities, motivation, values, and he added a ninth role as Specialist.
restrictions and experience and roel learning.
roles were divided into three groups; action roles Belbin didnt demonstrate how most of the Implemented and Completer Finisher), social could be explained by each factor .Instead, (Co-ordinator, Team worker and Resource defended the opinion that high performance teamsor) and thinking roles (Plant, Monitor Evaluatorrequired a balanced distribution of all the roles within thean Specialist) .
The true definition of those roles i Belbin, also thought that team role concept should in understanding work team and any distinguished from the concept of functional role that In this study the model with eight roles i out job related operational and technique The roles within the model and their characteristicsknowledge.As a result, some members may have the sameare stated in Table 1.Bel attracts the attention to the connectionWorld Appl.
J., 4 (3): 460-469, 2008463Table 1: Belbins team-role descriptionsTypeTypical featuresPositive qualitiesAllowable weaknessesCompanyConservative, dutiful,Organizing ability, practical commonLack of flexibility, unresponsivenessWorkersense, hard-working, self-discipline.to unproven ideas.ChairmanCalm, self-confidentA capacity for treating and welcomingNo more than ordinary in terms ofcontrolled.all potential contributors on their intellect or creative ability.merits and without prejudice.A strongsense of objectives.ShaperHighly strung, outgoing,Drive and a readiness to challengeProneness to provocation, irritationdynamic.inertia, ineffectiveness, complacencyand impatience.or , serious-Genius, imagination, intellect,Up in the clouds, inclined tominded, unorthodox.knowledge.disregard practical details or protocol.ResourceExtroverted, enthusiastic,A capacity for contacting people andLiable to lose interest once the initialInvestigatorcurious, communicative.exploring anything new.An ability tofascination has passed.respond to challenge.Monitor-Sober, unemotional,Judgement, discretion,Lacks inspiration or the ability toEvaluatormotivate others.TeamSocially orientated, ratherAn ability to respond to people and toIndecisiveness at moments of crisis.Workermild, sensitiye.situations and to promote team spirit.Completer-Painstaking, orderly,A capacity for follow-through.A tendency to worry about smailFinisherconscientious, anxious.Perfectionism.things.
A reluctance to 'Iet go'.Source: Belbin R.M.(2007), Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail, Elsevier Butterworth HeinemannCo Worker (CW): He is mostly responsible for and original approaches to the problems and accepted plans effectively and A typical plant has high mental skills, i He is not only the arranger but also a and introverted.He is not only the smartest on behalf of the organization rather than hismember of the team but also has he the widest imaginationbe He is positively selfish, tough-minded, practical,power.disiplined, traditional, faithful and tolerant.Chairma (CH): He is the team director, organiser and diminant and extroverted.He is the secondteam manager.He is responsible for supporting promisingme to be innovative.
They mostly resemble plant and distributing resources in any sense such aexcept for their parsonal affairs and original ideas.Despitebalancing the strong and the weak sides of team members.the resemblence with the plant on developing unique guides other members and control them.He is a the main difference is RIs being extrovertedrealistic manager, mostly calm, self-disciplined, dominant,(pref to interact with the enviroment).He is rarelydetermined and extroversion to an extend.in his room and if he is it is moslty because of a call (SH): His basic function is to shape team and applications.
He always prepare Worker (TW): The team worker supports other platform and spur the group into action with with his strength, help them to overcome theis decisions.He tries to combine ideas, aims and feeds the team soul and developpractical thoughts related to a realizable project.He is sensitive, reckless, impatient and and susceptible.
all managers are included in this cathegory (PL): He is a thinker and the source of the original attributed to when they are described in thisideas of the team.He can be defined as one of the creativeway.
A typical team worker is decisive, extroverted and of the team.His ideas are distinguished on theirless dominant.Resource Investigator (RI): Resource Investigator ishould be made.although they become dissappointed with its plainWorld Appl.Sci.J., 4 (3): 460-469, 2008464 Evaluator (ME): He is an expert on analysing a members high score for a peculiar team assessing ideas and offering suggestions for which may give an idea that he is strong fort he decent decisions.He has high mental talents arole, other members may prevent him to take the role.plan and shaper do.He seems as unprejudiced and because the scores are relative a score with his serious personality and judgements.
can be significant and insignificant some possibility of producing creative ideas is relativelyother time.low but he protects the team from fatal mistakes.A typicalmonito evaluater is stable, introverted ve has high levelmental abilities.
Completer Finisher (CF): The completer-finisher is theSA in which the team (based) management of the team for not making mistakes and he i was applied.
This study took place ilike a security guard against small but important mistakes.SAPHPHVHFI where a flexible and non routine organising there are very few members who prefers was tried to be realized.The management style was role.He has auto-control,strong character and very on a study group on readiness basis at first, but with irresponsible and indifferent members o it helped the group to come out as natural team team.He is willing to try complicated things and The process of developing team (based)finishes what he begins.He manages time well and alwaysmanagement approach was experienced in the school.
Thedoes his best to catch up all activities scheduled.He is a were described as natural since, except for the firsttypical finisher, introverted and anxious.st group, the school administration had no directThe Purpose of the Study: The main purpose of the studycon that the descriptive research constructuring of to make an evaluation on five teams within the school study would make significant contributions from the team (based) management has been experienced inas of science and application fields.
As for the with Belbin (1981)s team roles theory .at the first step the theoretical framework of the Belbin (1981)s team roles theory would be studiedstudy was determined through literature review and it wasfor its applicability in educational organizaitons .that Belbin (1981)s team roles model was the the following sub purposes are defined for applicable theory in studying team fact iBelbins team role model in SAPHPHVHFI; SAPHPH based on the review.Then the data wase distribution balance of the members team roles,given to the questions in Belbin Team Roles Self distribution of the team roles of on functional Inventory (BTRSPI).
The researcher is a member of the Eight Colours in Vocational compliance of the members natural role team as being the contact person for Sakarya with the
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