Worksheet for summarizing paraphrasing and quoting
the article by Roger Sipher below and do the exercises which follow.So That Nobody Has To Go To School If They Don't Want To by Roger SipherA decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator that American education is in trouble.One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws force many to attend school who have no wish to be there.Such children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the quality education that is the birthright of every American.
The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education to attend.This will not end public education.Contrary to conventional belief, legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws William Landes and Lewis Solomon, economists, found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the number of children in school.
They found, too, that school systems have never effectively enforced such laws, usually because of the expense involved.There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward improving education.
Most parents want a high school education for their children.Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational and disciplinary policies and thereby make Private schools have no such problem.They can fail or dismiss students, knowing such students can attend public school.Without compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust students whose academic or personal behavior undermines the educational mission of the institution.Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone failed? While we pay homage to the homily, "You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink," we have pretended it is not true in education.Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of value.Ask homework.
Quite the contrary, these students know they will be passed frenough to quit or until, as is more likely, they receive a high school diploma.At the point when students could legally quit, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not.Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous dividends.
First, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one goes centers nor indoor street corners.Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed, an end to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away.Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the educational atmosphere for those who want to learn.
Teachers could stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating.Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a student is learning.Parents could again read report cards and know if their children regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of them as institutions for educating America's youth.
Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later.
Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to middle and high Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be eliminated.Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently absent from school.Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal with young people not in school.If, in the long run, these institutions prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with Schools should be for education.At present, they are only tangentially so.
They have attempted to serve an all-enunction, trying to be all things to all people.In the process they have failed miserably at what they were originally formed to accomplish.1).
Write the thesis statement for this work on the lines below. 2).
From the first page, who does the author summarize?
Write that summary on the lines below.
From the first page, who does the author paraphrase?
Write that paraphrase on the lines below.
4).Who is being quoted in the first quoted passage from the story?
Write that quote on
5).On the lines below, summarize, in order, the six (6) points the author uses to make his case against compulsory school attendance )..
INTERSTATE SCHOOL LEADERS LICENSURE CONSORTIUM STANDARDS FOR SCHOOL LEADERS: A PILOT STUDY Richard A.Neilson A Thesis Submitted to the University of North Carolina at Wilmington in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of School Administration Department of Specialty Studies University of North Carolina at Wilmington 2006 Approved by Advisory Committee Dr.Martin Kozloff Dr.Kathleen Roney Dr.Catherine Nesbit Chair Accepted by Dr.Robert Roer Dean, Graduate School ii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF LIST OF CHAPTER 1: THE Purpose of the Pilot Essential Substantive Delineation of the Research of Importance of the Pilot CHAPTER 2: LITERARY CHAPTER 3: Role of the Selection of Shadow Data Collection ISLLC Standards Identification Template for
School Improvement iii Academic Performance CHAPTER 4: ISLLC Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standardized Adequate Yearly Participating School CHAPTER 5: Research Selection of Participating Observation of School Improvement ISLLC Standards iv Appendix A: Principal Appendix B: Teacher Appendix C: Shadow Data Collection Appendix D: ISLLC Standards Identification Template for
School Improvement v ABSTRACT In 1996, the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) developed their Standards for School Leaders for what they describe as those topics that formed the heart and soul of effective leadership.
Seventeen states and the District of Columbia now require a licensure exam for all new administrators based on these standards of leadership.
The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility and usefulness of the research model and data collection instruments for a future larger study to test the prevailing assumption that school administrators who adhere to the ISLLC Standards will have academically successful schools as determined by federally approved state standardized testing.
Data regarding the academic performance of three middle schools was collected from North Carolina ABCs school report cards, and No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress statistics.
School Improvement Plans were reviewed for evidence relating to the ISLLC Standards, principals and teachers were surveyed regarding administrator attitudes and assumptions concerning the ISLLC Standards, and the administrators activities as they related to the ISLLC Standards were observed and recorded during a school day.
It is apparent as a result of this pilot study that the research model proved sound and that professional standards such as those articulated by ISLLC may have an affect on student achievement.
But, one must also take into account the socio-economics of the school system, students, and community when determining the impact of professional standards on academic performance.vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful to Dr.Catherine Nesbit for her assignment which started me along the path to this thesis project and for serving as the chairperson of my thesis committee.
I am also grateful to Dr.Kathleen Roney who through her devotion to middle grades education and encouragement helped us present the original project to the National Middle Associations 32nd Annual Conference.
Special thanks to my partners in the original assignment, Ms.Lisa Barnes and Mr.Paul Price, who assisted with the observation of administrators and the collection of data as it pertained to the ISLLC Standards
I am especially grateful to my wife, Linda, and my family for their support and understanding during this seemingly never-ending project.
Lastly, I would like to thank my committee, Dr.Catherine Nesbit, Dr.
Martin Kozloff, and Dr.Kathleen Roney for their guidance and assistance with this research project.vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.
School Improvement Plan Comparison Value 2.Administrator Shadow Project 3.Teacher Survey 4.Principal Survey 5.School Improvement Plan Analysis 6.
Adequate Yearly Progress 7.Participating School 8.Data Comparison: Data Collection 9.Data Comparison: Data Collection Instruments by viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1.
Research 2.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 3.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 4.Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 5.
Evidence of ISLLC Standard 1 Found in
School Improvement 6.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 7.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 8.Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 9.Evidence of ISLLC Standard 2 Found in
School Improvement 10.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 11.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 12.
Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 13.
Evidence of ISLLC Standard 3 Found in
School Improvement 14.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 15.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 16.
Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 17.
Evidence of ISLLC Standard 4 Found in
School Improvement 18.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 19.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard ix 20.Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 21.Evidence of ISLLC Standard 5 Found in
School Improvement 22.Observed Evidence of ISLLC Standard 23.Teacher Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 24.Principal Survey Results: ISLLC Standard 25.Evidence of ISLLC Standard 6 Found in
School Improvement 26.Trend Analysis: Percentage of Students at or
Above Grade Level for 27.
Trend Analysis: Percentage of Students at or
Above Grade Level for 28.Proposed Research Model for Future 29.
Trend Analysis: Administrator Shadow Project 30.Excerpt from Principal Survey Coding 31.Trend Analysis: Principal Survey 32.
Trend Analysis: Teacher Survey 33.Data Analysis: School Improvement 34.Trend Analysis: Data Collection CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM Introduction The Interstate Sc
Gr 5.4 triangle 10 09
Teaching American History For All A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for
Mt Diablo Unified School District
5th, 8thth grade teachers, in partnership with University of California, Berkeley HistorySocial Science Project 5th-day Lesson: The Role of Slavery in the Colonies:
How Did the Thirteen Colonies Participate in the Triangular Trade?
Carli Fierros, MDUSD Kindergarten Teacher at Rio Vista Elementary,
formerly 5th Grade Teacher at Delta View Elementary
UC Berkeley, History Social- Alejandra Dubcovsky, UCB History Graduate Student Lauren Weaver, MDUSD Grant Coordinator 2
Teaching American History for All MDUSD/UCB H-SSP 5th Grade Lesson: Triangular Trade
Developed by: Jamie Cairns, Linda Chandlee, Wendy Citron, Carli Fierros, Kimberly Leyden, Kay Lunine, Lauren Weaver and Alejandra Dubcovsky
Teaching American History Grant Focus Question:
How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?
5th Grade Yearlong Question:
How did Americans change from being colonial subjects to American citizens?
Settling the Colonies.
Unit Focus Question:
What factors helped shape the economic and political development of the thirteen British colonies?
Unit Working Thesis:
The economic and political development of the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies depended on the distinct people who settled in the region, the settlers different reasons for founding colonies, and the varied resources available in the regions they settled.
Lesson Focus Question:
How did the thirteen colonies participate in the triangular trade?
Lesson Working Thesis:
The thirteen colonies exported raw materials to England and the West Indies, and imported manufactured goods from England and slaves from Africa.This trade of goods and people tied the British colonies, England, and Africa together in an interdependent relationship.
Sentence deconstruction Passage level analysis
identifying and organizing evidence
Suggested Amount of Time:
One to two class periods.
Textbook: The United States: Making a New Nation.
Orlando, Florida: Reflection Series, Harcourt
School Publishers, 2007, Chapter 5, pps 226-227
quote from Olaudah Equiano, images of the Middle Passage and a description
of South Carolina from a manifest list.
triangular trade maps
Context of the lesson in the unit:
This lesson is part of Lesson 3: New Englands Economy.Earlier lessons in this chapter cover other aspects of the New England colonies.
Day One: 1.Introduction
Trade Activity see directions.(p.5)
Pass out a copy of the simple triangular trade map (p.6) and relate to activity.As an extension activity, students can fill in the blank map (p.7) using information from both the triangular trade map (p.6) and/ or the map in their textbook on page 226.
Note to teacher: Students will need map for Day Two.
How do historians know this information?
Pass out A description of South Carolina (p.8) and discuss.
First, read pages 226 and 227 together.
Pass out and discuss primary source images and quote (pp9-10)
Pass out copy of text (p.
11) and sentence deconstruction (p.12; teacher key, p.13).
Students will circle verb and underline objects on copy of text.
Teacher will complete sentence deconstruction with the students.
Day Two: 1.Reading Strategy
First, review previous days lesson.
Pass out organizing evidence worksheet.(p.14; teacher key, p.15)
Teacher models how to complete the worksheet.
Students will organize evidence about exports and imports using the text and the maps.
Note to teacher: Students will need worksheets for Day Three.
Day Three: 1.Writing Strategy
First, review as needed.
Pass out guided paragraph writing worksheet.(p.16; teacher key, p.17)
Students will need organizing evidence worksheet from Day Two.
With modeling as needed, students will complete guided paragraph worksheet.Refer students to organizing evidence worksheet (connect concluding sentence with thesis sentence).
History-Social Science Content Standards:
4 5.4 Students understand the political, religious, social, and economic institutions that evolved in the colonial era.
Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills: Chronological and Spatial Thinking
4.Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations of places and interpret information available through a map's or globe's legend, scale, and symbolic representations.
5.Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes) and analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time.
Students identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical events.
Reading/Language Arts Content Standards: Reading 1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.
They describe and connect the essential ideas, argumen